This journal is a peer reviewed scientific forum for the latest advancements in bacteriology research on a wide range of topics including food safety, food microbiology, gut microbiology, biofuels, bioremediation, environmental microbiology, fermentation, probiotics, and veterinary microbiology. Because of our open access digital publication model, we believe that Agriculture, Food and Analytical Bacteriology will have a major and immediate impact on advancing scientific research that will only increase as the journal grows.

current issue

AFAB-Vol-4-Issue-2-cover

Volume 4 Issue 2

Published June 2014

Articles in this issue

  • Antibiotic Use in Livestock Production

    Published 06/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 2
    Pp. 76-85

    Keywords: , , ,

    Abstract:

    Antibiotic usage is a useful and commonly implemented practice in livestock and production agriculture that has progressively gained attention in recent years from consumers of animal products due to concerns about human and environmental health. Sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics has led to a concern that prophylactic supplementation leads to antimicrobial resistance, and this particular practice has come under public scrutiny. The consumer and media misconceptions about antibiotic usage and production strategies utilized in livestock production have caused a shift in consumer demands. Antibiotics directly and indirectly affect the livestock industry by treating illness and promoting the overall health of the animal, which may enhance production parameters such as growth and profitability. However, pending legislation threatens to eliminate the current antibiotic usage strategies implemented by producers. This review will address the historical and current use of antibiotics as it pertains to production animal agriculture to summarize how antibiotics promote animal health and growth performance.

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  • Effects of Co-nutrients in Foods and Bioremediation in the Environment on Methylmercury

    Published 06/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 2
    Pp. 86-95

    Keywords: , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    Mercury, a potentially toxic metal, is present in the environment as a result of both natural processes and from man-made sources. The amount of mercury mobilized and released into the biosphere has increased significantly since the beginning of the industrial age. Inorganic mercury deposits in water and bottom sediments where it is subject to bacterial conversion to methylmercury, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain with sometimes tragic consequences. This review discusses the production of methylmercury in the environment and exposure to and health effects for humans. We also discuss current knowledge of other nutrient interactions with methylmercury in the diet as well as possible methods for bioremediation of methylmercury in the environment.

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  • Contribution of Chemical and Physical Factors to Zoonotic Pathogen Inactivation during Chicken Manure Composting

    Published 06/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 2
    Pp. 96-108

    Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    Land application is a common method for disposal of manure and litter that accumulate during poultry production; however, zoonotic pathogens residing in the manure may contaminate either directly or indirectly ready-to-eat produce crops.Aerobic composting of animal manure is a beneficial process treatment that inactivates these pathogens. Although heat is considered to be the primary contributing factor to inactivation, ammonia and volatile acids may also serve antimicrobial roles during composting. This study was designed to determine the relative contributions of chemicals and heat to the inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken manure-based compost mixtures formulated to give initial carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios of 20:1, 30:1 and 40:1. The different initial C:N ratio formulations of the compost mixtures had no effect on pH or the cumulative heat generated.In general, there was within all compost mixtures an initial decline in pH followed by an increase in pH that coincided with an increase in temperature.Levels of ammonia and volatile acids were higher in compost mixtures formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 than in other C:N formulations. The inactivation rates of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes within 20:1 C:N formulations were higher than in other formulations. Regression models derived from the data revealed that volatile acid levels, in addition to heat, played a major role in pathogen inactivation. Therefore, it may be advantageous to formulate compost mixtures containing chicken litter to an initial C:N of 20:1 to take advantage of the antimicrobial activity of volatile acids generated when sub-lethal temperatures occur.

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  • Alternative Antimicrobial Supplements That Positively Impact Animal Health and Food Safety

    Published 06/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 2
    Pp. 109-121

    Keywords: , , ,

    Abstract:

    Recently, a vast array of potential antibiotic alternatives have been introduced and researched in the livestock industry as a means to provide livestock producers with products that will positively impact animal health and performance. Some of these products may be used in conjunction with current antibiotic usage strategies, and some of these products may be used to completely replace some antibiotics in livestock production. These innovative antibiotic alternatives include direct fed microbials (DFM), yeast extracts, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, phytochemicals, and various acids. Many of these products have the ability to promote animal health and improve growth performance simultaneously, and some of these compounds may additionally enhance food safety through pre-harvest pathogen reduction. Antibiotic alternatives may be essential tools for livestock production in the future should legislation arise that inhibits prophylactic usage of conventional antibiotics and as a means to appeal to shifting consumer demands. Furthermore, it is also possible that these alternatives can be used as an additional supplement to incorporate into current practices and strategies in livestock production to maximize the potential to enhance both animal health and growth performance. This review will discuss potential alternative antimicrobial supplements in animal agriculture and their impact on animal health, performance and pathogen reduction.

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  • Human Health Benefits of Isoflavones From Soybeans

    Published 06/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 2
    Pp. 122-142

    Keywords: , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    Isoflavones are a group of chemicals that are found in legumes, predominantly in soybean and soy products. Soy isoflavones have been a component of the diet of certain populations for centuries. Many health claims have been made for isoflavones including: cancer prevention, alleviation of menopausal symptoms, positive effects on bone health and a lowering of blood lipids leading to lowered susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. However, because of their estrogenic activity ome negative effects of isoflavones have been postulated. This review examines the literature associated with benefits as well as the negative effects of consumption of soy isoflavones. Results in some studies are limited or conflicting, but when viewed in its entirety, the current literature supports the safety of isoflavones as typically consumed in diets based on soy containing products.

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