This journal is a peer reviewed scientific forum for the latest advancements in bacteriology research on a wide range of topics including food safety, food microbiology, gut microbiology, biofuels, bioremediation, environmental microbiology, fermentation, probiotics, and veterinary microbiology. Because of our open access digital publication model, we believe that Agriculture, Food and Analytical Bacteriology will have a major and immediate impact on advancing scientific research that will only increase as the journal grows.

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AFAB Journal - Volume 4 Issue 3

Volume 4 Issue 3

Published September 2014

Articles in this issue

  • The Story of the Arkansas Association for Food Protection (AAFP)

    Published 06/2012

    Volume 2 Issue 1
    Pp. 4-5

    Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    The Arkansas Association for Food Protection (AAFP) is a diverse group of Academia, Industry, Regulatory and Retail professionals, committed to providing a forum to encourage improvement of all areas of food safety and quality. AAFP is a unique organization in that it provides a forum where professionals join together in providing educational seminars and meetings that bring current trends, emerging issues and concerns into focus for the better understanding of all. The associations goal is to provide its members with practical information that they can take back to their workplace and apply to improve the safety and quality of food for not only Arkansans but also the World.

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  • Growth of Acetogenic Bacteria In Response to Varying pH, Acetate Or Carbohydrate Concentration

    Published 03/2013

    Volume 3 Issue 1
    Pp. 6-16

    Keywords: , , , ,

    Abstract:

    Acetogens have only been isolated in low numbers from ruminal contents, even though the majority of acetogens isolated from ruminal contents are capable of utilizing both H2 and soluble carbohydrates present in ruminal fluid (e.g. glucose and cellobiose). The much higher methanogenic affinity for hydrogen has been suggested to determine the prevalence of methanogens over acetogens in many ecosystems, suggesting that other environmental factors determine the number of acetogens present in ruminal fluid. We report the effects of carbohydrate concentration, pH and acetate concentration on the growth of two ruminal acetogenic isolates (A10 and H3HH). The minimum amount of glucose necessary for growth (threshold) of A10 (111 μM) and H3HH (56 μM) was greater than the glucose concentration previously detected in bovine ruminal fluid (8-17 μM). However, the threshold of H3HH on cellobiose (14 μM) was much lower than the actual concentration previously detected in ruminal fluid (110-175 μM), suggesting that this organism could survive in the rumen using cellobiose as an energy source. Isolate A10 had a sufficiently high threshold for cellobiose (139 μM) to suggest that, at least for certain periods, the concentration of cellobiose in ruminal contents could be too low to support growth of this isolate. The growth rate of isolate A10 was decreased by 50% when the pH of the growth medium was lowered from 6.6 to 5.5. A similar decrease in growth rate was observed with isolate H3HH. Increasing the acetate concentration of the growth medium decreased the growth of both isolates as well. Moreover, the effect of high acetate concentration was more discernible at lower pH. The present results suggest that pH and volatile fatty acid concentration may be key factors limiting the growth of acetogens isolated from ruminal contents.

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  • Using Mortality Compost in Vegetable Production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production

    Published 05/2011

    volume 1 issue 1
    Pp. 6-14

    Keywords: , , ,

    Abstract:

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composting to breakdown the carcasses of daily poultry mortality and in the process destroy pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. The study was conducted during the summer and repeated in the winter to determine whether the time of year would affect the temperature profile or the length of time required for the process to be completed. Daily mortalities were collected from a nearby producer and layered in a compost bin each day for four days. Samples were collected from the litter before it was placed in the bin. Compost samples were collected every other day for a week after the bin was compiled and then once per week until the process was completed. The samples were evaluated for microbial content. Temperature was taken and recorded at random points in the bins on a daily basis. Upon completion of the composting process, the material was used as a soil amendment in two vegetable plots while a third plot without compost material served as the control. Soil samples were collected from each of the plots prior to application of the compost material. Cabbage seedlings were then planted in each of the plots. Vegetative samples and soil samples were collected and evaluated for microbial presence prior to planting and at week, 1, 3, 7, and again at reaping. The summer compost had the highest temperature of 156°F on d 9 during the primary phase while the winter compost had the highest temperature of 156°F on d 42 during the secondary phase of the compost. The summer compost samples were Salmonella enterica (SE) negative from d 2 of the trial but mixed bacterial colonies remained for the duration of the study. The vegetative samples in plot 1 had coliform levels of 3.48 log10/gm at wk10 but the levels was not considered significantly different from the other two plots (p<0.05). The results show that while winter composting can effectively breakdown poultry carcasses and attain high temperatures, summer compost is more efficient and had consistently higher temperatures.

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  • A Team Approach for Management of the Elements of a Listeria Intervention and Control Program

    Published 06/2012

    Volume 2 Issue 1
    Pp. 6-14

    Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    Listeria control in federally inspected processed meat plants has improved over the last 25 years. A model method is presented. This method couples local plant teams with investigative tools and a list of critical factors for process control. Diligence in the application of these tools and implementation of “Best Practices” enables the plant food safety culture to move from the Awareness phase to the Enlightenment phase; next to the Preventative phase and ultimately to the Predictive phase. Once the plant is in the Preventative and Predictive phases efforts spent firefighting problems are dramatically reduced and a state of control evolves.

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  • Introduction to Case Studies

    Published 03/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 1
    Pp. 8-12

    Keywords:

    Abstract:

    This article serves as an introduction to the case studies contained within this issue.

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  • A Personal Hygiene Behavioral Change Study at a Midwestern Cheese Production Plant

    Published 03/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 1
    Pp. 13-19

    Keywords: , , ,

    Abstract:

    High rates of employee turnover create training challenges as well as increase the risk of food-borne illness outbreaks and food product recalls. As a result, managers need tools to help them develop effective methods to rapidly and effectively train their employees. In addition, they need to combine this training with their observations and coaching to improve individual employee’s performance. This case study documents the implementation of a closed loop process of training combined with observations and continual feedback to improve employee behavior.

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  • Determination of antifungal activity of Pseudomonas sp. A3 against Fusarium oxysporum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Published 05/2011

    volume 1 issue 1
    Pp. 15-23

    Keywords: , , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    It has frequently been reported that chitinolytic soil bacteria, in particular biocontrol strains, can lyse viable fungal hyphae and thereby release potential substrates for bacterial growth. The present work was carried out with an objective to get a better understanding of the relationship between chitinolytic and antifungal properties of bacteria that occur naturally in coastal soils, i.e. without artificial selection. Among the bacterial, strain A3 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. A3 based on morphologic observation and 16S rRNA analysis. Strain A3 exhibited a maximum chitinase production of 1.44 U/ml in CC broth after 3 days of cultivation. Besides having chitinolytic activity, the molecular weight of the crude enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymogram. In vitro assays revealed that the crude chitinase inhibited activity of Fusarium oxysporum as identified by dual plate assay and microscopic methods. Hydrolysis products of the fungal cell wall by the crude enzymes of Pseudomonas sp. A3 were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified as oligosaccharides, which included monomers (GlcNAc), dimers (GlcNAc)2, and trimers (GlcNAc)3 using chitin oligomer standards. The crude chitinase isolated from strain A3 can be directly applied for suppressing growth of viable fungal hyphae.

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  • Development of a Food Defense Workshop and Graduate Certificate in Food Safety and Defense for Working Professionals

    Published 06/2012

    Volume 2 Issue 1
    Pp. 15-24

    Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

    Abstract:

    To protect the American food supply, there is a need to educate graduate students and working professionals in food and agriculture-related fields about food defense. Kansas State University, Purdue University, and Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis collaborated to develop a food defense curriculum for graduate students and working professionals. Thirteen stakeholders with expertise in food safety, food defense, and public health participated in a DACUM (Developing A Curriculum) process that identified 210 knowledge domains for food defense professionals. A survey validated the DACUM results with 297 professionals participating. Survey participants ranked Food and Agricultural Systems, Food Safety and Defense, Communication, Threats to Food and Agriculture, and a Capstone Experience as key curriculum topics. Information from the DACUM process and survey were used to develop curriculum modules for a two-day workshop along with a one-day computer simulation/capstone experience. Fourteen modules were developed and presented by professors from all three universities and working professionals with expertise in each topic area. Each module contained learning outcomes, a set of notes, exam questions, and a recorded audio/video lecture for later use in distance education. Workshop participants (food defense stakeholders, graduate students, and working professionals – 41 total) indicated the quality of the workshop was “very good to excellent” on a five-point Likert scale and they unanimously said they would recommend the workshop to others. To further educate professionals about food defense, Kansas State University, Iowa State University, University of Missouri, and University of Nebraska jointly offer a Graduate Certificate in Food Safety and Defense.

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  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Livestock and Poultry

    Published 03/2013

    Volume 3 Issue 1
    Pp. 17-29

    Keywords: , , ,

    Abstract:

    n 2008 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that only 6.4% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions originated from agriculture. Of this amount, 53.5% comes from animal agriculture. Agricultural activities are the largest source of N2O emissions in the U.S. accounting for 69% of the total N2O emissions for 2009. In animal agriculture, the greatest contributor to methane emissions is enteric fermentation and manure management. Enteric fermentation is the most important source of methane in beef and dairy production, while most of the methane from poultry and swine production originates from manure. The main cause of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions is from the application of nitrogen fertilizers and animal manures. Application of nitrogenous fertilizers and cropping practices are estimated to cause 78% of total nitrous oxide emissions.
    Based on the life cycle assessment of beef cattle, 86.15% of the GHGs are emitted during the production stage, while 68.51% of emissions take place during the production of pork and 47.82% of GHG emissions occur during the production stage of broiler chickens. The majority of the emissions from the beef cattle production comes from enteric fermentation while manure management is the major source during swine production and propane use during broiler poultry production.

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  • Preventing Post-Processing Contamination in a Food Nugget Processing Line When Language Barriers Exist

    Published 03/2014

    Volume 4 Issue 1
    Pp. 20-26

    Keywords: , ,

    Abstract:

    Post-processing contamination of food items may pose a potential risk to consumers; however, contamination may be minimized with proper employee training, supervision and commitment from the management of the food processing facility. The work force in the United States is consistently changing.Language barriers and communication are additional challenges and complications for front-line managers. This case study documents the implementation of an in-process hygiene training program that was developed based on inputs from employees identifying critical control points, corrective actions and monitoring procedures.

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